The President of India, the highest official of the state is elected for a fixed term. Federal System with Unitary Features The Indian Constitution contains all the federal features of governance like dual system of government centre and states , division of powers between the three organs of state executive, judiciary and legislature , Supremacy of the Constitution, independent Judiciary and bicameralism lower house and upper house. These lay down several fundamental principles which can be amended, but only in a very difficult way. The Congress can remove him only through impeachment. In Scotland, the separate and separate constitutional documents such as the in 1320 have led to and. There are 21 State High Courts working in all parts of India. Important features Dominance of agricultural sector: Major source of inc … ome in case of undeveloped and developing economies is agriculture.
It represents the people of India. Consequently, the and the were passed. The Federal Assembly is a bicameral legislature with Federation Council as the upper and State Duma as the lower house. It requires a simple majority to pass an amendment. Presiding Officer: The vice president of U.
S foreign policy and the chief spokesman of United States in foreign relations. Its first session was held on 9th December, 1946. The unique achievement of the Constitution is the unification and consolidation of some 552 Indian states with the rest of India. S constitution all the three powers have been given separate identity. The High Courts and the Supreme Court form a single integrated judicial structure with jurisdiction over all laws — union, state, civil, criminal or constitutional.
Everymanager performs the same basic functions irrespective of his rankor position. The Supreme Court acts as the guardian protector and interpreter of the Constitution. It came into force in 1789. The President of India is the constitutional head of state with nominal powers. The Supreme Court has been criticized to have seized or usurped the power. There have been fundamental and irreversible changes in the economy, government policies, outlook of business and industry, and in the mindset of the Indians in general. It implies equality or all before supremacy, uniformity and universality.
After every 5 years, the people of India indirectly elect their President. The cycle ofmanagement continues to operate so long as there is organizedaction for the achievement of group goals. Judicial Powers are exercised by the Supreme Court which interprets laws and decided cases and controversies in conformity with the law and by the methods prescribed by law. Dual Citizenship: The constitution provides for dual citizenship i. The Federation Council has to act within fourteen days. All the laws passed by the congress and assented by the president may be found against the provisions of the constitution and thus declared ultra vires by the Supreme Court through its power of judicial review. However Scots Law does not accord the same status to , and judgments in one legal system do not have a direct effect in the other legal systems.
Election: The constitution had originally provided for a direct election of the senators. The managerial job is basically the same at alllevels of organization and in all types of institutions. Its maximum strength stands fixed at 550. Originally there were seven categories of rights, but now they are six in number. President and prime minister could use their powers through assemblies. Indian constitution is written even though conventions also play a part insofar as they are in keeping with the provisions of the constitution. To ensure that it is used for peaceful purposes only.
Nobody holds any patent rights in the fundamental ideas of a Constitution…. The purpose of incorporating these duties in the Constitution is just to remind the people that while enjoying their right as citizens, should also perform their duties for rights and duties are correlative. J Marshall while announcing the decision in the Merbury Vs. The Preamble is the key to the constitution. He holds a definite tenure and can be removed only by a difficult process of impeachment. By the it has the power to remove individual judges from office for misconduct.
And amendments are playing important role as far as changes in American Constitution are concerned. There is a division of powers between the centre and the units. They, therefore, introduced checks and balances n the constitution. . India is a federation with some Unitarian features.